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Welcome to Biology 2011!


2011 Practice Mid-Term Exam

Key to Practice Benchtop Practical

Pictures of some models used on the 2011 mid-term exam


Things you should know about the exam:

Lab 1: 
  • parts of a microscope and their functions

  • properties of the light microscope:  light intensity and magnification

  • observe effects of magnification on width and depth of field

  • calculate total magnification and field of view

  • anatomical directional terms

  • general understanding of organ systems

  • body planes, regions, and cavities

Lab 2:
  • cells and organelles (including nucleus and cilia) on a microscope slide
  • stages of mitosis
  • structures on the cell model
  • diffusion and osmosis (wet lab demonstration)
  • PhysioEx 5B.  Transport Mechanisms and Cell Permeability (computer simulation)
Lab 3: 
  • histology slides:  epithelial and connective tissue subtypes—simple squamous epithelium, simple cuboidal epithelium, simple columnar epithelium, pseudostratified columnar epithelium, transitional epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium, areolar connective tissue, adipose tissue, reticular connective tissue, dense regular and irregular connective tissue, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, blood, neuron
  • skin slides:  tissue layers (epidermis, dermis & hypodermis), layers of epidermis, epidermal derivatives (hair, sebaceous & sudoriferous = sweat glands)
  • skin model
  • body membranes
Lab 4: 
  • bone and hyaline cartilage slide and osteon model
  • compact/dense bone vs. spongy/cancellous bone
  • general anatomy of a long bone
  • bone classification and bone markings
  • axial skeleton - identify bones and bone markings listed in lab guide
Lab 5: 
  • appendicular skeleton - identify bones and bone markings listed in lab guide
  • fetal skeleton
  • joint models
  • joint classifications (structural and functional)
  • types of joints
  • movements allowed at a joint

Labeled Images of the D.G. Multi-Torso

Cranial Nerve Review

Some Labeled Models for Final Practical

Practice Final Laboratory Practical

Things you should know for the exam:

Lab 6:
  • muscle histology (slides for skeletal, cardiac, isolated smooth muscle cells, and smooth muscle cells in layers)
  • identify structures on sarcomere electron micrograph [ultrastructure]
  • organization and classification of muscles [muscle classifications:  structural and functional]
  • identify the muscles and actions listed on lab guide on models and diagrams
  • PhysioEx 16B Skeletal Muscle Physiology:  recognition and understanding of the latent period, treppe phenomenon, multiple motor unit summation/recruitment, and temporal summation (including tetany) on a graph or a plot (computer simulation)
Lab 7:
  • EMG Biopac (multiple motor unit summation/recruitment + muscle fatigue)
Lab 8:  
  • neuron, pyramidal cell, Purkinje cell, and peripheral nerve slides
  • boldfaced structures on brain models
  • specified parts in lab manual on sheep brain dissection
  • cranial nerves (by name + number)
Lab 9:
  • structures on spinal cord slide
  • spinal cord model (on nerve tree as well)
  • major nerve plexuses on nerve tree (cervical, brachial, lumbar, + sacral)
  • somatic, superficial, and autonomic reflexes (stretch reflex, Babinski, pupillary + ciliospinal)
  • reaction time Biopac (effect of learning on response time)
Lab 10:
  • parts of the eye on a model as indicated in the lab guide
  • imajor parts of the eye (+ optic nerve) on a sheep eye dissection 
  • tests for visual acuity, near point accommodation, astigmatism, and blind spot
  • parts of the ear on a model as indicated in the lab guide
  • endocrine glands on models
  • structures on retina slide
  • structures on pituitary, thyroid/parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal gland, ovary, and testis slides (including names of hormones secreted by these glands)


Models : (structures you are responsible for will be in boldface on the model keys)
  • skeletal muscles:  head + neck, torso, upper and lower extremities
  • brain
  • spinal cord
  • nerve tree
  • eye
  • ear
  • endocrine glands on torso models


Slides :
  • muscle tissue:  skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
  • nervous tissue (also pyramidal cells + Purkinje cells)
  • peripheral nerve (l.s. and x.s.)
  • spinal cord
  • retina
  • endocrine glands:  pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal gland, pancreas, thyroid/parathyroid
Dissections :
  • sheep brain
  • sheep eye
PhysioEx 16B:
  • muscle physiology:  twitch, latent period, multiple motor unit summation/recruitment, treppe, wave summation, fused contractions (tetany)
  • EMGs (multiple motor unit summation/recruitment, muscle fatigue)
  • reaction time (effect of learning)
Miscellaneous :
  • sarcomere electron micrographs and diagrams
  • muscle connective tissue layers (epimysium, perimysium, endomysium)
  • muscle actions and categorization (agonist, antagonist, synergist)
  • peripheral nerve connective tissue layers (epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium)
  • reflex arc diagrams
  • somatic and autonomic reflexes:  stretch tendon reflexes, superficial cord reflexes (Babinski, abdominal), autonomic reflexes (pupillary, accommodation, ciliospinal)
  • visual tests:  blind spot, visual acuity, astigmatism, near point accommodation