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Whistling Vivaldi: How stereotypes affect us and what we can do

"There exists no group on earth that is not negatively stereotyped in some way–the old, the young, northerners, southerners, WASPs, computer whiz kids, Californians, and so forth. And when people with these identities are doing something, or are in a situation for which a negative stereotype about their group is relevant, they can feel stereotype threat; they can feel under pressure not to confirm the stereotype for fear they will be judged or treated in terms of it. Identity threats like this–contingencies of identity–are part of everyone’s life."