Woody Slope Wetlands
Woody slope wetlands include a variety of seepage wetlands including seepage forests, seepage woodlands, and seepage shrublands. These woody wetlands are typically found in dissected landscapes where subsurface or groundwater seepage reaches an impervious restrictive layer and seeps laterally from hill slopes. Other examples may form in the heads of ravines near the source of first order streams where waters originate from groundwater seepage. Seepage forests with alkaline groundwaters are classified by some as forested fens. Seepage forests and seepage woodlands are both dominated by trees in the canopy layer. Seepage forests have canopy coverages ranging from 75%-100% and herbaceous layer vegetation is dominated by a mix of broadleaf herbaceous perennials, ferns, sedges, and grasses. In seepage woodlands, canopies are more open (30%-75%) and the ground layer is usually densely dominated by graminoids (sedges, grasses, rushes) with interspersed herbacous forbs and ferns. Seepage shrublands are dominated by shrubs.